"Zero" cosmonauts - amalungiselelo enqwelomoya yokuqala

"Zero" cosmonauts - amalungiselelo enqwelomoya yokuqala

Ngaba i-cosmonaut yokuqala u-Yuri Gagarin wayenabo ababengaphambi kwakhe? Eli nqaku liza kugxila kumavolontiya akhaliphileyo ancama ubomi bawo ukuze enze inkqubela.

Oosomajukujuku be "Zero". Ngoobani, kwaye babenjalo ngenene?

Ngo-2007, amateurs amabini ase-Italiya akhupha idatha kwiimpawu ababezithathile kwasekuqaleni kwe-cosmonautics yaseSoviet besebenzisa unomathotholo wesikhashana.

Okumangalisayo kukuba, phakathi kongenelelo lukanomathotholo kushicilelo, unokutyholwa kungekuphela nje ukubetha kwentliziyo yenja yokuqala yaseSoviet eqaliswe emajukujukwini, kodwa namazwi abantu afuna uncedo.

Kodwa kuyacaca ukuba aba bantu bebesesithubeni ngaphambili. KaYuri Gagarin? Ngaba iCosmonaut No. 1 ngokwenene inabanduleli bayo?

Ngaphandle kwamathandabuzo, ubukhulu kwicandelo le-astronautics luya kuba sisalathiso sokuphakama kwe-USSR kwihlabathi lezopolitiko, kwaye ayinguye wonke umntu othanda oku.

Kungekudala emva koko, ngo-1959, amaTaliyane akrelekrele abamba umqondiso wokuqala ocacileyo ovela kwizixhobo zeSoviet "ISputnik-1", Amaqumrhu athile karhulumente abenomdla kwimisebenzi yabo kwaye axhasa" uphando "lwabo ngokutshintshiselana ngolwazi olusebenzayo ngayo yonke into eyenzekayo esibhakabhakeni ngaphaya kweUSSR.

Isathelayithi yokuqala eyenziweyo yomhlaba

Iziphumo zange kube kudala ukuza: sele ngoDisemba 1959, i-arhente yeendaba yase-Italiya yazisa uluntu ukuba ngo-1957-1959 eSoviet Union kwenziwa imifuniselo eyimfihlo yokuqalisa imijukujelwa ye-ballistic emajukujukwini, ilingwa ngabantu abaphilayo.

Kwingxelo yayo, iarhente yelizwekazi yabhekisa kwinkokheli yobukomanisi yaseCzech eyathi malunga ne-11 oosomajukujuku babulawa xa kwakusungulwa imijukujelwa yaseSoviet.

Imithombo yeendaba yaseNtshona; ngephanyazo yathatha ibhaton yokubhengeza inkqubo yendawo yaseSoviet, yongeza kuluhlu lwabavavanyi abafileyo zonke izinto ezintsha: amagama: Dedovsky, Shaborin, Milkov, Ilyushin, Bondarenko, Zavadovsky, Mikhailov, Kostiv, Tsvetov, Nefedov, Kiryushin ...

Kwangaxeshanye, bambalwa abantu ababesazi ukuba isiqingatha sabaqhubi beenqwelo moya sasinda emva kokubaleka kukaGagarin, kwaye esinye isiqingatha asizange sibekho konke konke.

Kwaye kutheni le nto iqinisekile ukuba "amazwi" akwi khasethi yase-Italiya ayengabantu abaphilayo? Inyani yile yokuba eminye yemijukujelwa ye-ballistic eneneni yayine ... abakhweli. Kodwa indima yabo yayidlalwa zii-mannequins eziqhelekileyo, ezazibizwa ngokuqhula ngokuthi "uIvan Ivanovich" ngokufana kwazo nabantu.

Ewe ungacinga ntoni xa ubona amajoni ethe cwaka ekhupha "imizimba engenabomi" kwinqanawa yokumisa, ayilayishe kwihelikopta kwaye ayithathe ngaphandle kokuchaza nelilizwi kumajelo eendaba? Kwaye ezinye ze "Ivanoviches" zaye zanikwa kunye neerekhodi zokurekhoda ezinamazwi abantu. Mhlawumbi "ukukhala kwabo ngoncedo" kwaqatshelwa ngamaTaliyane anomdla?

Kumda wobuchule bomntu

Kwaye akunakuqinisekwa ngokupheleleyo ukuba i-cosmonaut yokuqala yaseSoviet yayingenabanduleli. Ukuze umboniso wenqwelomoya weGagarin uthweswe ngempumelelo, idatha ecacileyo yokuxinana okulindele umntu emajukujukwini iyafuneka.

Ukuza kuthi ga ngoku, ngoJuni 1953, ngokusekwe kwiZiko loPhando ngeeNqwelomoya kunye neyeza lasemajukujukwini, iqela elifihlakeleyo lamavolontiya asempilweni ali-12, awayeza kuvavanya bonke ubunzima beenqwelomoya kwiindawo zelebhu.

Ngokusesikweni, "i-Detachment-O" ibingabikho kwaphela, kodwa enyanisweni, abavavanyi babelwe iinombolo ezilandelelanayo kwaye balumkisa ukuba phakathi kweziphumo ezinokubakho zovavanyo kunokuba zizo zonke iintlobo zezifo ezingapheliyo, ukukhubazeka kunye nokufa.

Oko la mavavolontiya akhaliphileyo ekufuneka enyamezele kuko kunokuchazwa ngokuchazwa kovavanyo olwenziwe kwiziko lophando. Umzekelo, ugqirha waseJamani u-Manovtsev, isazi sebhayoloji u-Andrei Bozhka kunye nenjineli u-Boris Ulybyshev kwafuneka bachithe unyaka wonke kwi-12 sq. M. Igumbi lobushushu elalizimele ngaphandle. Iimitha kunye nefeni eqhubekayo yokungcuma, ukuze izazinzulu zivavanye abasebenzi ukuba bahambelane ngokwengqondo.

Abanye oosinga-mbumbulu ababini, uViktor Ren noMikhail Novikov, bachitha iiyure ezi-6 bezama ukulahla iisuti zabo kwindawo eshushu enoxinzelelo, emva koko bachitha iiyure ezingama-72 bejinga kuLwandle Olumnyama ngenjongo yokufumanisa ukuba yeyiphi enye imali oosomajukujuku kwakufuneka baphile emva kokufika ngokungxamisekileyo elwandle. Kwaye uNovikov okhaliphileyo uthathe inxaxheba kwilinge lokufumanisa umda wokunyamezela komzimba womntu kwi -40 ° C.

Emva kokubamba kwi-tundra iiyure ezingama-40 kwezinye iisuti zoqeqesho, abavavanyi banceda oososayensi ukuba bakhulise impahla yokugquma yokufudumeza apho i-cosmonauts yexesha elizayo inokumelana neqabaka iiyure ezingama-72. Lixesha elininzi elithathayo abahlanguli ukubafumana naphina emhlabeni.

Ngokwabavavanyi ngokwabo, bayithathela ingqalelo iminyaka engama-35 njengelona xesha libalulekileyo kubo: abo basindileyo kwaye bengabhalwanga ngenxa yempilo bahlala kubudala obudala, ngelixa abahlanu "babhalisiwe" -Ogurtsov, Druzhinin, Greshkov, UNikolaev noKopan - bahlala ixesha elide ...

Inombolo yesifundo esiphantsi koziro

Njengoko usazi, uYuri Gagarin wabhabha emhlabeni kwiVostok-1 yesiphekepheke. Kodwa bambalwa abantu abaziyo ukuba kunyaka ongaphambili "inombolo ye-cosmonaut zero" uSergei Nefedov, oyena mntu ugcinwe nguGagarin, wavavanya izixhobo eziyimfihlo "iVostok-0" isebenza - ikopi ngqo yenqanawa yomlandeli wakhe. Lonke kuphela uvavanyo lweenkqubo zenkxaso yobomi lwenzekile hayi kwi-orbit, kodwa kwiimeko zebhubhoratri.

Eyona nto iphambili kuyo "Zero" cosmonaut uNefedov kwakukho ukufana ngokupheleleyo kwe-anthropometric kunye ne-cosmonaut No. 1: ukuphakama okufanayo, ubunzima kunye nokubonakala. Owona msebenzi uphambili wezifundo zokufunda zangaphantsi yayikukufumana amava eMhlabeni amatyeli amaninzi kunokuba bekulindelwe nguGagarin emajukujukwini, kunye nokuxelela "oqobo" ngeemvakalelo zakhe. Umzekelo, ukuba ukubhabha uGagarin kwafuneka achithe iiyure ezininzi kwindawo "yeembungu", uNefedov wachitha inyanga yonke kuyo, ngaphandle kokulinganisa ukutyeba.

I-spacesuit yeGagarin nayo "yayiqingqiwe" ukusuka kuNefedov, ekwakufuneka anyamezele "ukuxhoma" okude ukusuka kwiplasta, eme iiyure kwindawo engathandekiyo. Kwake kwathiwa "cosmonaut number zero" wasebenza kakhulu ngexesha elinye lokuzama ukutya okunesondlo kwiimeko ezinzima kangangokuba wachitha iiyure ezi-4 kwitafile yokusebenza: isisu asivumi ukwetyisa ukutya ...

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